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Go Back   The Soviet Military Awards Page Forum > Soviet Awards Forums > Imperial Russian Sphere And Resulting Nations > Great Mongolian State

Great Mongolian State Их Монгол Улс 29th December 1911 - 26th November 1924

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Old 03-04-2005, 01:16 PM   #1
charlet
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Baron Roman Nicolaus Von Ungern-Sternberg.

With the end of the Qing Dynasty and the establishment of the Republic of China in 1911, revolutionary ferment also emerged in Mongolia. As early as July 1911, participants in an anti-Chinese meeting in Yihe Huree had petitioned the Russian government--which long had sought the independence of Outer Mongolia--for help against China. On December 1, 1911, Outer Mongolia in effect proclaimed its independence on the basis that its allegiance had been to the Manchus, not to China. On December 28, the eighth Jebtsundamba Khutuktu became Bogdo Khan (holy ruler) of an autonomous theocratic government; a 20,000-troop army was created; and Russian officers appeared in Yihe Huree (renamed Niyslel--capital--Huree, or Urga) to equip, to organize, and to train the army. The new Chinese government refused to recognize Mongolian independence, but it was too preoccupied with internal discord to enforce its sovereignty.

Meanwhile, Russia was moving rapidly to take advantage of the situation. On November 3 and December 19, 1912, respectively, Mongolian-Russian and Mongolian-Tibetan agreements were signed in Niyslel Huree. The latter agreement granted mutual recognition of independence; the former only affirmed Mongolia's autonomy from China. The Russian agreement and a protocol to it created a tsarist protectorate over Outer Mongolia. The Japanese, too, sought, unsuccessfully, to influence the independence movement in 1911 and 1912 with contributions of arms and money. Following the mobilization of a Mongol army to liberate Inner Mongolia, several other agreements affecting Mongolia were reached. In November 5, 1913, agreement, Russia recognized Chinese suzerainty over Mongolia, and China recognized Outer Mongolia's right to selfrule and to the control of its own commerce and industry. China also agreed not to send troops into Mongolia. On May 25, 1915, a second, tripartite agreement (among China, Mongolia, and Russia), the Treaty of Kyakhta, formalized Mongolian autonomy. Russia's involvement in World War I, however, reduced the attention that the tsar's government could pay to Mongolia. This neglect, which occurred at the same time as new monarchical machinations in China, rekindled Japanese interest in, and aid to, anti-Chinese forces in Mongolia and neighboring Manchuria.

After revolution broke out in Russia in November 1917, Japan moved to aid anti-Bolshevik forces in Mongolia, and a Japanesefostered pan-Mongol movement was established under the influence of the Buryat Mongols. A pan-Mongolia conference was held in February and March 1919 in Chita, Siberia. The participants decided to establish a Mongol state, comprising Outer Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Buryatia (present-day Buryatskaya Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic) and to send letters to the Versailles Peace Conference that ended World War I. Despite formation of a small provisional government--in which Outer Mongolia refused to participate--and promises of Japanese aid, the movement failed in the face of renewed Chinese efforts to regain control over all of Mongolia. In October 1919, a Chinese warlord army, emboldened by the demise of the tsarist regime, occupied Niyslel Huree and received an acknowledgment of Chinese sovereignty from the Bogdo Khan government. The Mongol army was disarmed and disbanded.

Soon, however, the effects of the upheaval in Russia began to reach Mongolia. In October 1920, Russian White Guard troops under Baron Roman Nicolaus von Ungern-Sternberg invaded from Siberia. In February 1921, after a fierce battle, Von Ungern-Sternberg drove the Chinese out of Niyslel Huree and occupied the city. At first the White Guards were hailed as liberators by Mongolian monarchists, but in the next several months Von UngernSternberg 's reign of terror and destruction aroused popular opposition.

The threatening actions of Chinese, Japanese, and White Russian forces greatly stimulated Mongolian nationalism during this time. Two secret revolutionary circles emerged in Niyslel Huree in 1919, the military-oriented Dzuun (East) Huree Group, under Damdiny Sukhe Bator and Horloogiyn Dandzan, and the civilian-oriented Consul's Group, headed by Horloyn Choybalsan and Dogsomyn Bodoo. The Communist International, also called the Comintern, which was headquartered in Moscow, advised the two groups to merge in order to present a united front to the Chinese and the White Russian occupation forces. The merger was accomplished at a conference in Irkutsk in March 1920, with the formation of the Mongolian People's Party under the leadership of Sukhe Bator. The Jebtsundamba Khutuktu gave his encouragement and support to the revolutionary leaders, and in his name they appealed to Moscow for more assistance.
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Old 03-04-2005, 07:16 PM   #2
Esteban_cool
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That was impressive!

Here is a picture of him. It shows an award that I can´t identify. Probably it must be the Order of St. George.

Stebalin
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File Type: jpg ungern.jpg (23.4 KB, 47 views)
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Old 03-05-2005, 08:04 PM   #3
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Esteban,

You are right about the order.

Marc
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Old 03-07-2005, 04:33 AM   #4
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Thanks Esteban for the picture, I wanted it to illustrate a text about the period of history you can find in Sebastian's post.

Merci Sébastien, pour ce petit texte fort intéressant, qui, en plus, répondait parfaitement à la question de Dolf.

Thanks
Jan
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Old 03-07-2005, 02:09 PM   #5
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Seb,

Thanks a lot for the nice lesson of Mongolian History!
I must confess I know almost nothing about that country :o
Any book (if in French that would be perfect) you'd recommend?
Please PM or contact me via MSN with suggestions.

Jan,

I didn't know you could write (and speak I believe) such a perfect French! ;)

Dolf
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Old 05-23-2005, 10:43 AM   #6
Felix
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Dolf, there is a book in french about the baron Ungern :

"le baron Ungern, Khan des steppes" by Leonid Youzefovitch, Editions des Syrtes 2001 ISBN :2845450362

and of course the comics book :

"Corto Maltese en Sibérie" by Hugo Pratt, Casterman éditions
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Old 02-13-2012, 08:32 AM   #7
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Re: Baron Roman Nicolaus von Ungern-Sternberg

There is a book in English on this raving looney:

James Palmer, The Bloody White Baron: The Extraordinary Story of the Russian Nobleman Who Became the Last Khan of Mongolia (2009). It can be had in both hardback and paperback.

History "lite", but readable.

Always enjoyed chatting with my friend's grandfather (mentioned on another thread) about how frightened his father was about the threats that he made against those supplying the "Reds". He showed me several of the broadsides that the "Whites" put up, detailing (gory detail) what would be done to "Red" sympathizers.
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