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Old 05-07-2004, 10:28 AM   #1
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Admiral Fedor Fedororovich Ushakov - 1744-1817
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Ushakov was born in Burnakovo village of the Yaroslavl province in the family of a small nobleman. After finishing the Naval Gentlemen Cadet Corps in 1766 he was sent to the Navy in the rank of warrant officer.

In the period of the Russian-Turkish War of 1768-1774 he served in the Azov-Don small fleet as a ship commander and took part in military operations in the Black Sea. And he distinguished himself in his first battle. In 1780 Ushakov was appointed the commander of the Imperial Yacht, but he abandoned the court career and preferred to come back to the Navy. In 1780-1782 he commanded the battleship "Victor" that guarded merchant chips from the piratical activities of the English Navy in the Mediterranean Sea.

In 1784 Ushakov was promoted to the rank of captain and appointed the commander of the battleship "Saint Pavel". From 1785 he took active part in the building of the Sebastopol Navy base.

In 1787 he commanded a battleship and the 3-rd squadron of the Russian Black Sea Navy. In the Russian-Turkish war of 1787-1791 Ushakov commanded the vanguard of the Russian Black Sea Navy and in 1788 smashed the Turkish Fleet at Fidonisy island. In this battle Ushakov took the initiative and not waiting for an order of the Fleet Commander attacked the outnumbered enemy ships. In spite of the rules of the line tactics that was in use then he at first attacked the flagship of the first enemy column.

In 1789 Ushakov was promoted to the rank of Rear-Admiral and appointed the Commander of all the Black Sea Navy that based in Sebastopol. Under his command the Russian Navy won the victories in the battles at Kerch (1790), Tendrovo (1790) and Caliakria (1791). These naval victories together with the victories of the Russian Army under the command of Suvorov on land let Russia gain a foothold strong of the Black Sea coast.

In 1793 Ushakov became a Vice-Admiral. The commanded the Russian Squadron that took part in the Mediterranean campaign in 1798-1800. This campaign was a part of military operation of the Russian Army against the Napoleonic Forces in Italy. The Russian troops on land were under the command of Count A.V.Suvorov.

In this naval campaign Ushakov distinguished himself in the assault of the fortress of Corfu in 1799. In this action the Russian Navy blocked the fortress, attacked it from sea, landed troops and they captured the fortress. It was just against all the military rules of those times. For this battle Ushakov was promoted to the rank of Admiral

Short time after capturing the fortress and island Corfu and all the Ionian Islands the Russian Squadron blocked the French Naval bases on the Italian coast (Genoa, Ankona and others) and landed troops that took active part in the military operations against the Napoleonic Forces in Italy and in the assaults of Naples, Roma and others. Suvorov appraised the action of the Russian Squadron very high. Ushakov was not only a talented naval commander but a skilful diplomat too. He defended the interests of Russia in the Mediterranean Sea very strongly and consistently.

Alexander I, who became the Russian Emperor in 1801 and his court were hostilely to Ushakov and his reforms in the Navy, and Ushakov fell into disfavour. At last he was compelled to retire from the Navy in 1807.

In the war of 1812 year Ushakov was elected the commander of the militia of the Tambov gubernia (province).

He died in autumn of 1817 in his estate in the Tambov gubernia.

Order of Ushakov (with two degrees) was established, and there is also Ushakov medal for Navy personnel.



Eddie.
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Old 05-07-2004, 10:36 AM   #2
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Admiral Pavel Stepanovich Nakhimov

(June 23, 1802 - June 28, 1855)

Was one of the most famous admirals in Russian naval history, is remembered above all as the commander of naval and land forces during the Siege of Sevastopol in the Crimean War.

Born in the Gorodok village of Vyaz'ma district of Smolensk region in the family of a retired major of Russian Army, he entered the Morskoy Shlyakhetskiy Corpus (Naval Academy for the Nobility) in St. Petersburg in 1815. His first sea voyage aboard the frigate "Feniks"(Phoenix) to the shores of Sweden and Denmark took place in 1817. Soon afterwards he was promoted to the rank of non-commissioned officer. In February 1818 he passed examinations to become a midshipman, and was immediately assigned to the second Flotskiy Ekipazh (Fleet Crew) of the Russian Imperial Navy Baltic Fleet.

At the beginning of his naval career, Nakhimov's experience was limited to the voyages in the Baltic Sea and a more extensive trip from the White Sea port of Arkhangelsk to Kronshtadt (Kronstadt / Cronstadt) naval base near St. Petersburg. His lucky strike came in March 1822, when he was assigned to frigate "Kreiser", taking part in the round-the-globe expedition under the command of the well-known Russian explorer Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev, who had already undertook several such voyages before that.

During the three-year-long round-the-world adventure Nakhimov was promoted to the rank of lieutenant. On accomplishing this long voyage he received his first award, Order of Saint Vladimir IV degree. Then came the assignment to seventy-four-cannon Imperial Navy ship "Azov" whose maiden voyage from Arkhangelsk to Kronshtadt took place in autumn of 1826.

Next summer "Azov" sailed to the Mediterranean sea together with the Russian squadron under the command of rear-admiral Geiden for a joint allied expedition together with the French and English navies against the Ottoman Empire. Just before the departure "Azov" was visited by the Russian Emperor Nicholas I who gave the order in case of hostilities to deal with the enemy "as the Russians do".

The Russian flagship "Azov", under then captain first rank Lazarev, most distinguished itself in the battle of Navarino where the allied British-French-Russian fleet totally destroyed the Ottoman fleet in 1827. For his outstanding gunnery performance during the battle of Navarino Nakhimov was promoted to the captaincy of a trophy ship. He was also decorated by the allied governments.

During the Crimean war Nakhimov distinguished himself by annihilation of the Ottoman fleet at Sinope in 1853. His finest hour came during the Siege of Sebastopol (Sevastopol) where he and admiral V.A. Kornilov organized from scratch the land defence of the city and its port, the home base of the Russian Black Sea Fleet. As the commander of the port and the military governor of the city, Nakhimov in fact became the head of the Sevastopol naval and land defence forces. On June 28, 1855, during the inspection of forward defence positions on Malakhov kurgan he was fatally wounded by a sniper.

Nakhimov was buried inside St Vladimir Cathedral in Sevastopol along with M.P. Lazarev, V.A. Kornilov and General V.I. Istomin. There is a monument erected in his memory. The Naval college in St. Petersburg in Russia is named after Nakhimov. Order of Nakhimov (with two degrees) was established, and there is also Nakhimov medal for Navy personnel.
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The top of one of the columns on the Ushakovsky bridge in St. Petersburg which was built in 1953-1954 by the ingeneer project of V.V.Demchenko and B.B.Levin and also by the architects P.A.Areshev and V.S.Vasilkovsky is a simplified view of the Nakhimov Order.




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Old 05-07-2004, 11:56 AM   #3
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Field marshal Aleksandr Vasilyevich Suvorov

(1729-1800)

Suvorov entered the army as a youth and rose rapidly through the ranks. He fought in the Russo-Turkish War of 1768-74, helped suppress the peasant rebellion led by Pugachev in 1775, and was created count for his victories in the Russo-Turkish War of 1787-92, notably at Focsani, Rimnik, and at Izmayil in Bessarabia. In 1794, Suvorov commanded the Russian army that suppressed the Polish revolt after the second partition of Poland by Russia and Prussia. In a swift campaign, culminating in the battle of Praga and the capture of Warsaw, he crushed Polish resistance. Suvorov's reputation reached its peak in the French Revolutionary Wars of 1798-99, in which he commanded Austro-Russian forces against the armies of the French Republic. Sent to oust the French from Italy, he defeated them at Cassano, took Milan and Turin, and routed the French on the Trebbia and at Novi. Having driven the French out of N Italy, Suvorov planned to march on Paris, but instead was ordered to Switzerland over the St. Gotthard Pass to join the forces of General Korsakov and Austrian Archduke Charles and to drive the French out of Switzerland. Before Suvorov could join Korsakov, Archduke Charles and his Austrian forces had been ordered back to the Rhine. Korsakov's troops, greatly outnumbered, were defeated by the French commander Masséna at Zürich (Sept., 1799). Suvorov was still struggling through the almost impassable Alpine mountain paths when news of Korsakov's disaster reached him. Harassed by the French, he succeeded in leading his half-starved and ragged troops to Lindau. He refused to participate in further action with the Austrians, and shortly afterward Russia withdrew from the war. For his exploits in Italy he was created Prince Italiski. Idolized by his men, Suvorov demanded discipline and sacrifice, but his willingness to let his soldiers plunder conquered territory gave Russian troops a bad reputation throughout Europe. One of the great generals of modern times, Suvorov was never defeated in battle; he ascribed his success to the principle of “intuition, rapidity, impact.”

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Old 05-07-2004, 12:13 PM   #4
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Field marshal Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov

(16 September 1745 – 28 April 1813)

Born in Saint Petersburg, entered the Russian army in 1759 or 1760. He saw active service in Poland (1764 – 1769), and against the Turks (1770 – 1774); lost an eye in action in the latter year; and after that travelled for some years in central and western Europe. In 1784 he became a major-general, in 1787 governor-general of the Crimea; and under Suvorov, whose constant companion he became, he won considerable distinction in the Russo-Turkish War of 1787 - 1792, at the taking of Ochakov, Odessa, Benda and Ismail, and the battles of Rimnik and Mashin. He was now (1791) a lieutenant-general, and successively occupied the positions of ambassador at Constantinople, governor-general of Finland, commandant of the corps of cadets at Saint Petersburg, ambassador at Berlin, and governor-general of Saint Petersburg. In 1805 he commanded the Russian corps which opposed Napoleon's advance on Vienna, and won the hard-fought action of Dürrenstein on 11 November 1805.

On the eve of Austerlitz Kutuzov tried to prevent the Allied generals from fighting a battle, and when he was overruled took so little interest in the event that he fell asleep during the reading of the orders. He was, however, present at the battle itself (2 December 1805), and was wounded.

From 1806 to 1811 Kutuzov served as governor-general of Lithuania and Kiev, and in 1811, being then commander-in-chief in the war against the Turks, he became a prince. After the controversy between him and Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly about strategy was decided in his favor, Kutuzov was given command of the army that was retreating before Napoleon's advance (following the scorched earth principle).

Kutuzov gave battle at Borodino (7 September 1812) in the Patriotic War against Napoleon, and after its undecisive results he fell back on the strategy of his predecessor: withdraw in order to save the Russian army from possible defeat. This came at the price of losing Moscow, its population evacuated. After retreating to the south-west of Moscow and reorganization of the Russian army, he forced Napoleon into retreat following the battle at Maloyaroslavets. The old general's cautious pursuit evoked much criticism, but at any rate he allowed only a remnant of the Grand Army to regain Prussian soil.

Kutuzov now held the rank of Field Marshal and had become Prince of Smolensk - having achieved this title for a victory over part of the French army at that place in November 1812.

Early in 1813 Kutuzov fell ill and died on 28 April 1813 at Bunzlau/Boleslawiec. Memorials have been erected to him at that place and in St. Petersburg.
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Old 05-07-2004, 12:32 PM   #5
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Bogdan Khmelnitsky

(c. 1595 - August 6, 1657)

Bohdan Zinovoy Mykhaylovych Khmel'nyts'ky that being his Ukrainian name; he was known in Polish as Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki, and in Russian as Bogdan Khmelnitsky) was a Polish noble, leader of Zaporizhzhya (Zaporozhian) Cossacks, hetman of Ukraine, noted for his revolt against Poland (1648 - 1654), and a Treaty of Pereyaslav which led to annexing Ukraine by the Russian Empire.

He was born in Chigirin in the Ukraine. It is not clear whether in the family of Ruthenian or Polish noble who immigrated to Ukraine from Masovia. Chmielnicki was educated by Jesuits. However, unlike many of their other pupils, he did not embrace Roman Catholicism, but early in life became a indifferent for the faith. Later he seemed to belong to Greek Orthodox faith to which most of the Cossacks and the Ruthenian peasants belonged. While still in the subordinate position of a "sotski" (an officer over a hundred) of the Registered Cossacks, subject to the Polish magnate Koniecpolski, he was deprived by Chaplinski, the bailiff of Chigirin, of his estate of Subotovo. Chaplinski availed himself of Chmielnicki's absence to make a raid on the place, during which the young son of the owner received injuries from which he ultimately died, and Chmielnicki's (second) wife was carried off.

For centuries after creation of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth the people of Ruthenia had felt oppressed by the nobles and Jewish traders. Although Ruthenian nobility enjoyed full rights, they quickly polonised and therefore were alienated from common people; the advent of Counter-Reformation meant troubles in relationship between orthodox and catholic faith. Unwilling to attend to the details of administration themselves, Polish magnates made the Jewish citizens a go-between in the transactions with the peasants of Ukraine. They sold and leased certain privileges to Jews for a lump sum, and, while enjoying themself at the court, left it to Jewish leaseholders and collectors to become the embodiment of hatred to the oppressed and long-suffering peasant. Although Chmielnicki's personal resentment influenced his decision to rid the Ukraine of Polish and Ruthenian magnates and Jews, it seems that it was his ambition to become the ruler of Ukraine which was the main motive that led him to instigate the uprising of the Ruthenian people against the magnates and the Jews.

Since many have seen Jews as a source of oppression, a lot of Jews were murdered during the uprising. The number ranges from 10,000 to 100,000 (1648 - 1649) by different historians.

These events also were the start of a series of campaigns (which started period known as The Deluge in Polish history) that temporarily freed Ukraine from Polish domination. Successes at Jovti Vody, Korsun' and Pilavtsi (Żółte Wody, Korsuń and Piławce in Polish, respectively) led to Chmielnicki being paid-off by the Polish king and gained numerous privileges for the Cossacks at the Treaty of Zborov. However when hostilities resumed Chmielnicki's forces were betrayed by their former allies Tatars and suffered a massive defeat in 1651 at the Battle of Beresteczko and were forced at Bila Tserkva (Biała Cerkiew) to accept a loser's treaty. A year later the cossacks had their revenge at the Battle of Batoh. The Ukraine was still perilously weak and in 1654, Chmielnicki persuaded the Cossacks to ally with the Russian tsars at the Treaty of Pereyaslavl, a treaty that had tragic results for the Ukraine after Chmielnicki's death (the Polish-Muscovite Treaty of Andrusov in 1667).
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Old 05-08-2004, 05:21 AM   #6
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Alexander Nevsky

(May 30, 1220 - November 14, 1263)
Was a medieval leader of the Russian principality of Novgorod who rose to legendary status because of his great military victories.
His first great victory was in battle against the Swedes on the Neva River. This victory won him the appelation Nevsky. His most famous victory was his defeat of the Teutonic Knights in a battle on Lake Chud, in which the knights were routed with only minimal Russian loses. After his death he was proclaimed a national hero and a defender of the Orthodox faith. Later historians have downplayed Nevsky's greatness. While he won great victories in the West, he still was a vassal to the Mongols and forced the citizens of Novgorod to pay tribute to them. His great victory against the Teutonic Order also had been minimized with modern evidence pointing to only a few knights killed rather than the hundreds claimed by the Russian chroniclers.
Sergei Eisenstein made one of his greatest movies about Alexander Nevsky and his victory of the Teutonic Knights.

Note:
On the Order of Alexander Nevsky in the central medalion is the actor who played Newsky and not the "Real" person.

Eddie.
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Old 05-08-2004, 05:41 AM   #7
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The actor Nikolai Cherkassov stars as the legenday Alexander Nevsky in Sergei Eisenstein's masterpiece.

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Old 05-08-2004, 05:49 AM   #8
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Christophe,
That's the one!
Apparently he looked better than the original person.

Eddie.
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