AMAZING IMPORTANT Letter & Folk Art Archive - 1904 Civil War Confederate Veteran For Sale

AMAZING IMPORTANT Letter & Folk Art Archive - 1904 Civil War Confederate Veteran


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AMAZING IMPORTANT Letter & Folk Art Archive - 1904 Civil War Confederate Veteran:
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AMAZING Letter & Folk Art Archive Civil War Confederate Veteran & Doctor
from MississippiLengthy Letters, Postcards & ArtSent to young girl in North Carolina
1904 - 1911

For offer, a rare and unique archival collection! A fresh, unresearched collection that holds important historical value.Vintage, Old, Original, Antique, NOTa Reproduction - Guaranteed !!

This collection belongs in a museum, and contains a wealth of information. J.B. (John Bird) Foster (1839-1915) fought in the Civil War, in the 15th Mississippi Regiment, and later worked as a medical doctor in Increase and Enzor, Miss. He was very active in Veteran reunions, and wrote about them elsewhere. The archive presented here is truly amazing, and unique. J.B. Foster wrote these letters and did these incredible folk art drawings, and sent them to Miss Bonnie Eloise Mauney in Kings Mountain, North Carolina between 1904 and 1911. Miss Mauney eventually married later in life, and became Bonnie Eloise (Mauney) Summers (1897-1976). She would go on to write a history of Kings County, N.C. One can only speculate how Foster becameacquaintedwith Bonnie. Perhaps they met at a Confederate Veteran's Reunion, which Foster regularly attended, or another way. What can be said, is that Foster poured his life into writing to this girl, and shared so much important history and AMAZING folk art. His writing style and artwork are unique in every way. He reminisces about fighting in the Civil War, talks about local happenings, gives opinions and detailed descriptions of people and surroundings, goes into detail about the Confederate veteran reunions and picnics (describes the fellow soldiers, and people), and provides these wonderful cartoon-like drawings. Some letters are VERY lengthy, and are like short stories in their own right. There are approx. 20 letters (80 large (most) pages) 15 postcards, 14 envelopes, and 4 small photos of Foster in the collection. I have imagined someone writing a novel or even a non fiction work using this collection. Transcriptions of the letters was begun, but not completed. They are included with the letters. The entire collection is housed in a 3 ring binder, and archivally safe. More work could be done to protect the collection further. There is more than shown - most artwork is shown but there are a few more pieces. Lots of writing not shown. In good to very good condition.Please seephotos. If you collect19thcentury Americana history, American military, battlefield, etc.this is a treasureyou will not see again!Add this to your image orpaper/ ephemera collection.Important genealogy research importance too. Combine shipping on multiple offer wins! 2464



The United Confederate Veterans (UCV, or simply Confederate Veterans) was an American Civil War veterans' organization headquartered in New Orleans, Louisiana. It was organized on June 10, 1889, by ex-soldiers and sailors of the Confederate States as a merger between the Louisiana Division of the Veteran Confederate States Cavalry Association; N. B. Forrest Camp of Chattanooga, Tennessee; Tennessee Division of the Veteran Confederate States Cavalry Association; Tennessee Division of Confederate Soldiers; Benevolent Association of Confederate Veterans of Shreveport, Louisiana; Confederate Association of Iberville Parish, Louisiana; Eighteenth Louisiana; Adams County (Mississippi) Veterans' Association; Louisiana Division of the Army of Tennessee; and Louisiana Division of the Army of Northern Virginia.[1][2]


The Union equivalent of the UCV was the Grand Army of the Republic.


History

See also: List of commanders-in-chief of the United Confederate Veterans

Background

There had been numerous local veterans associations in the South, and many of these became part of the UCV. The organization grew rapidly throughout the 1890s culminating with 1,555 camps represented at the 1898 reunion. The next few years marked the zenith of UCV membership, lasting until 1903 or 1904, when veterans were starting to die off and the organization went into a gradual decline.[2]


Purpose

The UCV felt it had to outline its purposes and structure in a written constitution, based on military lines. Members holding appropriate UCV "ranks" officered and staffed echelons of command from General Headquarters at the top to local camps (companies) at the bottom. Their declared purpose was emphatically nonmilitary – to foster "social, literary, historical, and benevolent" ends.[3]


The UCV sponsored Florida's Tribute to the Women of the Confederacy (1915).


Reunions


Cherokee confederates (Thomas' Legion) at the U.C.V reunion in New Orleans, 1903.


Confederate veterans reunion May 1911


1951 Commemorative postage stamp[4]

The national organization assembled annually in a general convention and social reunion, presided over by the Commander-in-Chief. These annual reunions served the UCV as an aid in achieving its goals. Convention cities made elaborate preparations and tried to put on bigger events than the previous hosts. The gatherings continued to be held long after the membership peak had passed and despite fewer veterans surviving, they gradually grew in attendance, length and splendor. Numerous veterans brought family and friends along too, further swelling the crowds. Many Southerners considered the conventions major social occasions. Perhaps thirty thousand veterans and another fifty thousand visitors attended each of the mid and late 1890 reunions, and the numbers increased. In 1911 an estimated crowd of 106,000 members and guests crammed into Little Rock, Arkansas—a city of less than one-half that size. Then the passing years began taking a telling toll and the reunions grew smaller. But still the meetings continued until in 1950 at the sixtieth reunion only one member could attend, 98-year-old Commander-in-Chief James Moore of Selma, Alabama.[3] The following year, 1951, the United Confederate Veterans held its sixty-first and final reunion in Norfolk, Virginia, from May 30 to June 3. Three members attended: William Townsend, John B. Salling, and William Bush. The U.S. Post Office Department issued a 3-cent commemorative stamp in conjunction with that final reunion.[5] The last verified Confederate veteran, Pleasant Crump, died at age 104 on December 31, 1951.


The Confederate Veteran

In addition to national meetings, another prominent factor contributed to the growth and popularity of the UCV. This was a monthly magazine which became the official UCV organ, the Confederate Veteran. Founded as an independent publishing venture in January 1893, by Sumner Archibald Cunningham, the UCV adopted it the following year. Cunningham personally edited the magazine for twenty-one years and bequeathed almost his entire estate to insure its continuance. The magazine was of a very high quality and circulation was wide. Many veterans penned recollections or articles for publication in its pages. Readership always greatly exceeded circulation because numerous camps and soldiers' homes received one or two copies for their numerous occupants. An average of 6500 copies were printed per issue during the first year of publication, for example, but Cunningham estimated that fifty thousand people read the twelfth issue.[6] Similar to Grand Army of the Republic / GAR reunions.


See also

American Civil War portal

icon Society portal

flag United States portal

Confederate Memorial Day

List of Confederate monuments and memorials

Grand Army of the Republic

Confederate Memorial Hall

Confederate Memorial Hall Museum

Southern Cross of Honor

Lost Cause of the Confederacy

Louisiana Historical Association

Louisiana in the American Civil War

Sons of Confederate Veterans, headquartered in Columbia, Tennessee

Notes

Minutes U.C.V., I, Constitutional Convention Proceedings, pp. 3–8.

Hattaway, 1971, p. 214.

Hattaway, 1971, p. 215.

"Arago: United Confederate Veterans Final Reunion Issue". arago.si.edu.

"61st and final UCV reunion in 1951".

Hattaway, 1971, pp. 215–16.

References

Cimbala, Paul A. Veterans North and South: The Transition from Soldier to Civilian after the American Civil War (Santa Barbara: Praeger, 2015). xviii, 189 pp.

Dorgan, Howard. "Rhetoric of the United Confederate Veterans: A lost cause mythology in the making." in Oratory in the New South (1979): 143–73.

Hattaway, Herman. "The United Confederate Veterans in Louisiana." Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association 16.1 (1975): 5–37. in JSTOR

Hattaway, Herman (Summer 1971). "Clio's Southern Soldiers: The United Confederate Veterans and History". Louisiana History. Louisiana State University. XII (3): 213–42.

Marten, James Alan. Sing Not War: The Lives of Union & Confederate Veterans in Gilded Age America (Univ of North Carolina Press, 2011).

Primary sources

United Confederate Veterans (1907). Minutes of the United Confederate Veterans. I. New Orleans, La. Retrieved April 27, 2014.

United Confederate Veterans (1907). Minutes of the United Confederate Veterans. II. New Orleans, La. Retrieved April 27, 2014.

United Confederate Veterans (1909). Minutes of the United Confederate Veterans. III. New Orleans, La. Retrieved April 27, 2014.

United Confederate Veterans (1910). Minutes of the United Confederate Veterans. IV. New Orleans, La. Retrieved April 27, 2014.

United Confederate Veterans (1910). Minutes of the United Confederate Veterans. V. New Orleans, La. Retrieved April 27, 2014.

United Confederate Veterans (1920). Minutes of the Thirtieth Annual Meeting and Reunion of the United Confederate Veterans. New Orleans, La.: Rogers Printing Co. Retrieved April 27, 2014.

United Confederate Veterans (1926). Minutes of the Thirty-sixth Annual Meeting and Reunion of the United Confederate Veterans. New Orleans, La.: Rogers Printing Co. Retrieved April 27, 2014.

United Confederate Veterans (1896). Organization of 850 United Confederate Veteran Camps. New Orleans, La. Retrieved April 27, 2014.

United Confederate Veterans (1897). Organization of 1026 Camps in the United Confederate Veteran Association. New Orleans, La. Retrieved April 27, 2014.

United Confederate Veterans (1903). Organization of 1523 Camps in the United Confederate Veteran Association. New Orleans, La. Retrieved April 27, 2014.

United Confederate Veterans (1908). Organization of Camps in the United Confederate Veterans. New Orleans, La.: Hyatt Stat'y Mfg. Co. Retrieved April 27, 2014.

United Confederate Veterans (1910). Organization of Camps in the United Confederate Veterans. New Orleans, La.: J. G. Hauser. Retrieved April 27, 2014.

United Confederate Veterans (1912). Organization of Camps in the United Confederate Veterans. New Orleans, La.: J. G. Hauser. Retrieved April 27, 2014.

United Confederate Veterans (1914). Organization of Camps in the United Confederate Veterans. New Orleans, La.: A. W. Hyatt Stat'y Mfg. Co. Retrieved April 27, 2014.

United Confederate Veterans (1921). List of Organized Camps of the United Confederate Veterans Corrected to August 31, 1921. New Orleans, La.: Rogers Printing Co. Retrieved April 27, 2014.

United States. Cong. Senate (1918). Proceedings of the Twenty-seventh Annual Reunion of the United Confederate Veterans, the Eighteenth Annual Convention of the Confederated Southern Memorial Association, and the Twenty-second Annual Reunion of the Sons of Confederate Veterans. Washington, D.C.: GPO. Retrieved April 27, 2014.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to United Confederate Veterans.








CONFEDERATE MISSISSIPPI TROOPS

15th Regiment, Mississippi Infantry

OVERVIEW:

15th Infantry Regiment, organized at Choctaw, Mississippi, in May, 1861, contained men from Holmes, Choctaw, Quitman, Montgomery, Yalobusha, and Grenada counties. The regiment was active at Fishing Creek, Shiloh, Baton Rouge, and Corinth, then was placed in Rust's, Tilghman's, and J.Adams' Brigade. After serving in the Vicksburg area, it joined the Army of Tennessee and participated in the Atlanta Campaign, Hood's winter operations, and the Battle of Bentonville. This unit had 34 officers and 820 men on January 7, 1862, and lost 44 killed, 153 wounded, and 29 missing at Fishing Creek. Many were disabled at Peach Tree Creek and Franklin, and only a remnant surrendered in April 1865. The field officers were Colonels Michael Farrell and Winfield S. Statham; Lieutenant Colonels James R. Binford, J.W. Hemphill, and Edward C. Walthall; and Majors William F. Brantly, James B. Dennis, Russell G. Prewitt, and Lamkin S. Terry.



Mississippi was the second southern state to declare its secession from the United States, doing so on January 9, 1861. It joined with six other southern slave-holding states to form the Confederacy on February 4, 1861. Mississippi's location along the lengthy Mississippi River made it strategically important to both the Union and the Confederacy; dozens of battles were fought in the state as armies repeatedly clashed near key towns and transportation nodes.


Mississippian troops fought in every major theater of the American Civil War, although most were concentrated in the Western Theater. Confederate president Jefferson Davis was a Mississippian politician and operated a large slave cotton plantation there. Prominent Mississippian generals during the war included William Barksdale, Carnot Posey, Wirt Adams, Earl Van Dorn, Robert Lowry, and Benjamin G. Humphreys.



Secession and Mississippian politics

For years prior to the American Civil War, slave-holding Mississippi had voted heavily for the Democrats, especially as the Whigs declined in their influence. During the 1860 presidential election, the state supported Southern Democrat candidate John C. Breckinridge, giving him 40,768 votes (59.0% of the total of 69,095 ballots cast). John Bell, the candidate of the Constitutional Union Party, came in a distant second with 25,045 votes (36.25% of the total), with Stephen A. Douglas, a northern Democrat, receiving 3,282 votes (4.75%). Abraham Lincoln, who won the national election, was not on the ballot in Mississippi.[1][2] According to one Mississippian newspaper in the late 1850s:


The slavery controversy in the United States presents a case of the most violent antagonism of interests and opinions. No persuasions, no entreaties or appeals, can allay the fierce contention between the two ...


— Mississippi Free Trader, (August 28, 1857).[3]

Long a hotbed of secessionist sentiment, support for slavery, and southern states' rights, Mississippi declared its secession from the United States on January 9, 1861, two months after the Republican Party's victory in the U.S. presidential election. The state then joined the Confederacy less than a month later, issuing a declaration of their reasons for seceding, proclaiming that "[o]ur position is thoroughly identified with the institution of slavery--the greatest material interest of the world".[4] Fulton Anderson, a Mississippian lawyer, delivered a speech to the Virginian secession convention in 1861, in which he declared that "grievances of the Southern people on the slavery question" and their opposition to the Republican Party's goal of "the ultimate extinction of slavery" were the primary catalysts of the state in declaring secession.[5] Mississippian judge Alexander Hamilton Handy also shared this view, opining of the "black" Republican Party that:


The first act of the black Republican Party will be to exclude slavery from all the territories, from the District of Columbia, the arsenals and the forts, by the action of the general government. That would be a recognition that slavery is a sin, and confine the institution to its present limits. The moment that slavery is pronounced a moral evil, a sin, by the general government, that moment the safety of the rights of the south will be entirely gone.


— Judge Alexander Hamilton Handy, (February 1861).[6]

Along with South Carolina, Mississippi was one of only two states in the Union in 1860 in which the majority of the state's population were slaves.[7] According to Mississippian Democrat and future Confederate leader Jefferson Davis, Mississippi joined the Confederacy because it "has heard proclaimed the theory that all men are created free and equal", a sentiment perceived as being threatening to slavery, and because the "Declaration of Independence has been invoked to maintain the position of the equality of the races", a position that Davis was opposed to.[8]


William L. Harris, one Mississippian secession commissioner, told a meeting of the Georgian general assembly that the Republicans wanted to implement "equality between the white and negro races" and thus secession was necessary for the slave states to resist their efforts.[9]


Fulton Anderson, another Mississippian, told the Virginian secession convention that the Republicans were hostile to the slave states themselves, thus accusing the Republican Party of having an "unrelenting and eternal hostility to the institution of slavery."[10]


Enlistment

Although there were small pockets of citizens who remained sympathetic to the Union, most famously in Jones County,[11] the vast majority of white Mississippians embraced slavery and the Confederate cause. Thousands flocked to join the Confederate military. Around 80,000 white men from Mississippi fought in the Confederate army; whereas some 500 white Mississippians remained loyal to the U.S. and fought for the Union. As the war progressed, a considerable number of freed or escaped slaves joined the United States Colored Troops and similar black regiments. More than 17,000 black Mississippian slaves and freedmen fought for the Union.[12] There were regional variations, as Logue shows. almost all soldiers were volunteers. The likelihood of a man volunteering for service increased with a person's amount of personal property owned, including slaves. Poor men were less likely to volunteer. Men living near the Mississippi River, regardless of their wealth or other characteristics, were less likely to join the army than were those living in the state's interior. Many military-age men in these western counties had moved elsewhere. Union control of the Mississippi River made its neighbors especially vulnerable, and river-county residents apparently left their communities (and often the Confederacy) rather than face invasion.[13]


Emancipation of slaves

Further information: History of slavery in Mississippi

Portions of northwestern Mississippi were under Union control on January 1, 1863, when the Emancipation Proclamation went into effect. All of Mississippi had been declared "in rebellion" in the Proclamation, and Union forces accordingly began to free slaves in the U.S.-controlled areas of Mississippi at once.[14] According to one Confederate lieutenant from Mississippi, slavery was the cause for which the state declared secession from the Union, saying that "This country without slave labor would be completely worthless ... We can only live & exist by that species of labor: and hence I am willing to fight to the last."[15]


Mississippian towns during the war

Corinth

Corinth's location at the junction of two railroads made it strategically important. Confederate General P.G.T. Beauregard retreated there after the Battle of Shiloh, pursued by Union Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck. Beauregard abandoned the town when Halleck approached, letting it fall into Union hands. Since Halleck approached so cautiously, digging entrenchments at every stop for over a month, this action has been known as the Siege of Corinth.


Maj. Gen. William Rosecrans moved to Corinth as well and concentrated his force with Halleck later in the year to again attack the city. The Battle of Corinth took place on October 3–4, 1862, when Confederate Maj. Gen. Earl Van Dorn attempted to retake the city. The Confederate troops won back the city but were quickly forced out when Union reinforcements arrived.


Oxford


On August 22, 1864 the city of Oxford, MS was burned to the ground by General A.J. Smith. Only the University of Mississippi and two shops were left standing. This action was taken because Nathan Bedford Forrest had taken refuge in Oxford.


Jackson

Despite its small population, Jackson became a strategic center of manufacturing for the Confederacy. In 1863, during the campaign which ended in the capture of Vicksburg, Union forces captured Jackson during two battles—once before the fall of Vicksburg and again soon after its fall.


On May 13, 1863, Union forces won the first Battle of Jackson, forcing Confederate forces to flee northward towards Canton. Subsequently, on May 15 Union troops under William Tecumseh Sherman burned and looted key facilities in Jackson. After driving the Confederates out of Jackson, Union forces turned west once again and soon placed Vicksburg under siege. Confederates began to reassemble in Jackson in preparation for an attempt to break through the Union lines now surrounding Vicksburg. Confederates marched out of Jackson to break the siege in early July. However, unknown to them, Vicksburg had already surrendered on July 4. Union Army general Ulysses S. Grant dispatched Sherman to meet the Confederate forces. Upon learning that Vicksburg had already surrendered, the Confederates retreated back into Jackson, thus beginning the Siege of Jackson, which lasted for approximately one week before the town fell.


Natchez

During the American Civil War, the Mississippian city of Natchez remained largely undamaged. The city surrendered to Flag-Officer David G. Farragut after the fall of New Orleans in May 1862.[16] One civilian, an elderly man, was killed during the war, when in September 1863, a Union ironclad shelled the town from the river and he promptly died of a heart attack. Union soldiers sent by Ulysses S. Grant from Vicksburg occupied Natchez in 1863. The local commander, General Thomas Ransom, established headquarters at a home called Rosalie.[17]


Ellen Shields's memoir reveals a Confederate woman's reactions to Union occupation of the city. Shields was a member of the local elite and her memoir points to the upheaval of Confederate society during the war. According to historian Joyce Broussard, Shields's memoir indicates that Confederate men, absent because of the war, were seen to have failed in their homes and in the wider community, forcing the women to use their class-based femininity and their sexuality to deal with the Union Army.[18]


The 340 planters who each owned 250 or more slaves in the Natchez region in 1860 were not enthusiastic Confederates. The support these slaveholders had for the Confederacy was problematic because they were fairly recent arrivals to the Confederacy, opposed secession, and held social and economic ties to the Union. These elite planters also lacked a strong emotional attachment to the idea of a Southern nation; however, when the war started, many of their sons and nephews joined the Confederate army.[19] On the other hand, Charles Dahlgren arrived from Philadelphia and made his fortune before the war. He did support the Confederacy and led a brigade, but was sharply criticized for failing to defend the Gulf Coast. When the Union Army came he moved to Georgia for the duration. He returned in 1865 but never recouped his fortune; He went bankrupt and in 1870 he gave up and moved to New York City.[20]



Bishop Elder of Natchez

A few residents showed their defiance of Union authorities. In 1864, the Catholic bishop of the Diocese of Natchez, William Henry Elder, refused to obey a Union order to compel his parishioners to pray for the U.S. president. In response, Union forces arrested Elder, convicted him, and jailed him briefly.


The memory of the war remains important for the city, as white Natchez became much more pro-Confederate after the war. The Lost Cause myth arose as a means for coming to terms with the Confederacy's defeat. It quickly became a definitive ideology, strengthened by its celebratory activities, speeches, clubs, and statues. The major organizations dedicated to maintaining the tradition were the United Confederate Veterans and the United Daughters of the Confederacy. At Natchez, although the local newspapers and veterans played a role in the maintenance of the Lost Cause, elite women particularly were important, especially in establishing memorials such as the Civil War Monument dedicated on Memorial Day 1890. The Lost Cause enabled women noncombatants to lay a claim to the central event in their redefinition of Southern history.[21]


Vicksburg

Vicksburg was the site of the Battle of Vicksburg, a decisive victory as the Union forces gained control of the entire Mississippi River and cut the western states off. The battle consisted of a long siege, which was necessary because the town was on high ground, well fortified, and difficult to attack directly. The hardships of the civilians were extreme during the siege, with heavy shelling and starvation all around.[22] Some 30,000 Confederates surrendered during the long campaign, but rather than being sent to prison camps, they were paroled and sent home until they could be exchanged for Union prisoners.[23]


Greenville

Greenville was a pivotal village for Grant's northern operations in Mississippi during the Vicksburg campaign. The area of the Delta surrounding Greenville was considered the "breadbasket" for providing Vicksburg's military with corn, hogs, beef, mules and horses. Beginning at the end of March 1863, Greenville was the target of General Frederick Steele's Expedition. The design of this expedition was to reconnoiter Deer Creek as a possible route to Vicksburg and to create havoc and cause damage to confederate soldiers, guerrillas, and loyal (Confederate) landowners. Highly successful, Steele's men seized almost 1000 head of livestock (horses, mules, and cattle) and burned 500,000 bushels of corn during their foray.[24] In addition to the damage done, the Union soldiers also acquired several hundred slaves, who, wishing to escape the bonds of slavery left their plantations and followed the troops from Rolling Fork back to Greenville. It was at this time that General Ulysses S. Grant determined that if any of the slaves chose to do so, they could cross the Union lines and become U.S. soldiers. The first black regiments were formed during the Greenville expedition, and by the end of the expedition nearly 500 ex-slaves were learning the "school of the soldier." General Steele's activity in the delta around Greenville pulled the attention of the Confederate leaders away from the Union activities on the Louisiana side of the Mississippi River as they moved on Vicksburg. More importantly, it had serious consequences for the people and soldiers of Vicksburg who were now deprived of a most important source of supplies, food, and animals. In early May, as retaliation for Confederate artillery firing on shipping on the Mississippi River, Commander Selfridge of the U.S. Navy ordered ashore 67 marines and 30 sailors, landing near Chicot Island. Their orders were to "put to the torch" all homes and buildings of those citizens guilty of aiding and abetting Confederate forces. By the end of the day of May 9, the large and imposing mansions, barns, stables, cotton gins, overseer dwellings and slave quarters of the Blanton and Roach plantations were in ruins. Additional damage was done to Argyle Landing and Chicot Island and other houses, barns and outbuildings. The destruction of Greenville was completed on May 6 when a number of Union infantrymen slipped ashore from their boats and burned every building in the village but two (a house and a church).[25][26][27]


Choctaw County

During the war, Choctaw County Unionists formed a "Loyal League" allied with the U.S. to "break up the war by advising desertion, robbing the families of those who remained in the army, and keeping the Federal authorities advised."[28]


Others

Columbus was an important hospital town early in the war. Columbus also had an arsenal that produced gunpowder as well as cannons and handguns. Columbus was targeted by the Union on at least two different occasions, but Union commanders failed to attack the town, due to the activities of Nathan Bedford Forrest and his men. Many of the casualties from the Battle of Shiloh were brought there, and thousands were buried in the town's Friendship Cemetery. Canton was an important rail and logistics center. Many wounded soldiers were treated in or transported through the city, and, as a consequence, it too has a large Confederate cemetery.


Meridian's strategic position at a major railroad junction made it the home of a Confederate arsenal, military hospital, and prisoner-of-war stockade, as well as the headquarters for a number of state offices. The disastrous Chunky Creek Train Wreck of 1863 happened 30 miles from Meridian, when the train was en route to the Vicksburg battle. After the Vicksburg campaign, Sherman's Union forces turned eastward. In February 1864, his army reached Meridian, where they destroyed the railroads and burned much of the area to the ground. After completing this task, Sherman is reputed to have said, "Meridian no longer exists."


A makeshift shipyard was established on the Yazoo River at Yazoo City after the Confederate loss of New Orleans. The shipyard was destroyed by Union forces in 1863. Then, Yazoo City fell back into Confederate hands. Union forces retook the city the following year and burned most of the buildings in the city.


Battles in Mississippi

Skirmish at Aberdeen

Battle of Big Black River Bridge

Battle of Booneville

Battle of Brices Cross Roads

Battle of Champion Hill

Battle of Chickasaw Bayou

Siege of Corinth

Battle of Corinth

Battle of Grand Gulf

Battle of Iuka

Battle of Jackson

Battle of Meridian

Battle of Okolona

Battle of Oxford

Battle of Port Gibson

Battle of Raymond

Burning of Seminary

Battle of Senatobia

Battle of Snyder's Bluff

Battle of Tupelo

Siege of Vicksburg





This is a list of Mississippi Civil War Confederate Units, or military units from the state of Mississippi which fought for the Confederacy in the American Civil War. The list of Union Mississippi units is shown separately.



Confederate Army

Infantry


Two unidentified soldiers in early war Mississippi uniforms with muskets and bayonets


Corporal L. Purnell of Co. I, 11th Mississippi Infantry Regiment

1st (Johnston's) Infantry

1st (Patton's) Infantry (Army of 10,000)

1st (Percy's) Infantry (Army of 10,000)

2nd Infantry

2nd (Davidson's) Infantry (Army of 10,000)

2nd Mississippi Infantry (Army of 10,000)

3rd Infantry

3rd Infantry (Army of 10,000)

4th Infantry

5th Infantry

6th Infantry

7th Infantry

8th Infantry

9th Infantry

10th Infantry


Flag of the 11th Mississippi Infantry Regiment

11th Infantry

University Grays (Company A)

12th Infantry

13th Infantry

14th (Consolidated) Infantry

14th Infantry

15th (Consolidated) Infantry


Private Henry Augustus Moore of Co. F, 15th Mississippi Infantry Regiment

15th Infantry

16th Infantry


Private Silas A. Shirley of Co. H, 16th Mississippi Infantry Regiment

17th Infantry

18th Infantry

19th Infantry[1]

20th Infantry

21st Infantry

22nd Infantry

23rd Infantry

24th Infantry

25th Infantry (2nd Confederate)

26th Infantry

27th Infantry

29th Infantry

30th Infantry

31st Infantry

32nd Infantry

33rd Infantry

34th Infantry

35th Infantry

36th Infantry

37th Infantry

39th Infantry

40th Infantry

41st Infantry

42nd Infantry[2]

43rd Infantry

44th Infantry

45th Infantry

46th Infantry

48th Infantry

1st Battalion, Infantry (Army of 10,000)

2nd Battalion, Infantry

3rd Battalion, Infantry

5th Battalion, Infantry

7th Battalion, Infantry

8th Battalion, Infantry

37th Battalion, Infantry

Comfort's Company, Infantry

Cooper's Company, Infantry

Lewis' Company, Infantry

Red's Company, Infantry (Red Rebels)

Sharpshooters

1st Battalion, Sharp Shooters

9th Battalion Sharp Shooters

15th Battalion, Sharp Shooters

Cavalry


Sergeant John E. Barlow of 2nd Co. M, 1st Mississippi Cavalry Regiment

Jeff Davis Legion

1st (Wirt Adams's/Wood's) Cavalry

1st (Lindsay's/Pinson's) Cavalry

2nd Cavalry

3rd (McGuirk's) Cavalry[3]

4th Cavalry

5th Cavalry

6th Cavalry

7th Cavalry. Organized 3/1/1863 from 1st (Falkner's) Regiment, Partisan Rangers (see below).[4]

8th Cavalry

9th Cavalry

10th Cavalry

11th (Ashcraft's) Cavalry

11th (Consolidated) Cavalry

11th (Perrin's) Cavalry[5]

12th Cavalry

18th Cavalry

28th Cavalry

38th Cavalry

Ham's Regiment, Cavalry

Power's Regiment, Cavalry

Yerger's Regiment, Cavalry

1st (Miller's) Battalion, Cavalry

3rd (Ashcraft's) Battalion, Cavalry

4th Battalion, Cavalry

6th Battalion, Cavalry

17th Battalion, Cavalry

24th Battalion, Cavalry

Garland's Battalion, Cavalry

Hughes' Battalion, Cavalry

Stockdale's Battalion, Cavalry

Street's Battalion, Cavalry

Abbott's Company, Cavalry

Bowen's Company (Chulahoma Cavalry)

Buck's Company, Cavalry

Duncan's Company (Tishomingo Rangers), Cavalry

Dunn's Company (Mississippi Rangers), Cavalry

Garley's Company (Yazoo Rangers), Cavalry

Gibson's Company, Cavalry

Hamer's Company (Salem Cavalry)

Knox's Company (Stonewall Rangers), Cavalry

Polk's Independent Company (Polk Rangers), Cavalry

Russell's Company, Cavalry

Semple's Company, Cavalry

Shelby's Company (Bolivar Greys), Cavalry

Vivion's Company, Cavalry

William's Company, Cavalry

American Indian battalion

1st Choctaw Battalion, Cavalry & Infantry

Artillery

1st Light Artillery Regiment

14th Battalion, Light Artillery

Bradford's Company (Confederate Guards Artillery)

Byrne's Battery, Artillery

Cook's Company, Horse Artillery

Cowan's Battery, Co. G, 1st Miss. Light Artillery Regiment

Culbertson's Battery, Light Artillery

Darden's Battery, Light Artillery (Jefferson Flying Artillery)

English's Company, Light Artillery

Graves' Company, Light Artillery (Issaquena Artillery)

Hoskins' Battery, Light Artillery (Brookhaven Light Artillery)

Kittrell's Company (Wesson Artillery), Artillery

Lomax's Company, Light Artillery

Merrin's Battery, Light Artillery

Pettus Flying Artillery, Light Artillery a/k/a Hudson's Battery and later sometimes Hoole's Battery

Richards' Company, Light Artillery (Madison Light Artillery)

Roberts' Company (Seven Stars Artillery), Artillery

Stanford's Company, Light Artillery

Swett's Company, Light Artillery (Warren Light Artillery)

Smith's/Turner's Battery, Light Artillery

Yates' Battery, Light Artillery

Militia

4th Cavalry, Militia

Hinds County Militia

State Troops

Infantry

1st Infantry, State Troops, 1864

1st (Foote's) Infantry (State Troops)

1st (King's) Infantry (State Troops)

2nd (Quinn's) Infantry (State Troops)

2nd Infantry, State Troops, 30 days, 1864

3rd Infantry (State Troops)

4th Infantry (State Troops)

5th Infantry (State Troops)

1st Battalion, State Troops, Infantry, 12 months, 1862–63

1st Battalion, State Troops, Infantry, 30 days, 1864

2nd Battalion, Infantry (State Troops)

3rd Battalion, Infantry (State Troops)

Cavalry

2nd State Cavalry

1st (McNair's) Battalion, Cavalry (State Troops)

1st (Montgomery's) Battalion, Cavalry (State Troops)

2nd (Harris') Battalion, State Cavalry

3rd (Cooper's) Battalion, State Cavalry

Davenport's Battalion, Cavalry (State Troops)

Stubb's Battalion, State Cavalry

Gamblin's Company, Cavalry (State Troops)

Grace's Company, Cavalry (State Troops)

Reserves

3rd Battalion, Reserves

Infantry

Berry's Company, Infantry (Reserves)

Cavalry

1st Cavalry Reserves

2nd Cavalry Reserves

3rd Cavalry Reserves

2nd Battalion Cavalry Reserves

3rd Battalion, Cavalry Reserves

Butler's Company, Cavalry Reserves

Mitchell's Company, Cavalry Reserves

Partisans

1st (Falkner's) Regiment, Partisan Rangers. Organized in April 1862; temporarily disbanded 11/15/1862. Reorganized 3/1/1863 as 7th Mississippi Cavalry (see above).[4]

2nd (Ballentine's) Regiment, Partisan Rangers

Armistead's Company, Partisan Rangers

Rhodes' Company, Partisan Rangers, Cavalry

Smyth's Company, Partisan Rangers

Misc

Adair's Company (Lodi Company)

Adam's Company (Holmes County Independent)

Applewhite's Company (Vaiden Guards)

Barnes' Company of Home Guards

Barr's Company

Brown's Company (Foster Creek Rangers), Cavalry

Burt's Independent Company (Dixie Guards)

Camp Guard (Camp of Instruction for Conscripts)

Clayton's Company (Jasper Defenders)

Conscripts, Mississippi

Drane's Company (Choctaw County Reserves), Cavalry

Drane's Company (Choctaw Silver Greys)

Fant's Company

Foote's Company, Mounted Men

Gage's Company

Gage's Company (Wigfall Guards)

Gordon's Company (Local Guard of Wilkinson County)

Grave's Company (Copiah Horse Guards)

Griffin's Company (Madison Guards)

Hall's Company

Henley's Company (Henley's Invincibles)

Hightower's Company

Hudson's Company (Noxubee Guards)

Maxey's Company, Mounted Infantry (State Troops)

McCord's Company (Slate Springs Company)

McLelland's Company (Noxubee Home Guards)

Miscellaneous, Mississippi (Mississippi)

Montgomery's Company of Scouts

Montgomery's Independent Company (State Troops) (Herndon Rangers)

Montgomery's Company

Moore's Company (Palo Alto Guards)

Morgan's Company (Morgan Riflemen)

Morphis' Independent Company of Scouts

Moseley's Regiment

Nash's Company (Leake Rangers)

Packer's Company (Pope Guards)

Page's Company (Lexington Guards)

Roach's Company (Tippah Scouts)

Roger's Company

Shield's Company

Standefer's Company

Stewart's Company (Yalobusha Rangers)

Taylor's Company (Boomerangs)

Terrell's Unattached Company, Cavalry

Terry's Company

Walsh's Company (Muckalusha Guards)

Wilkinson County Minute Men

Williams' Company (Gray Port Greys)

William's Company

Wilson's Company (Ponticola Guards)

Wilson's Independent Company, Mounted Men (Neshoba Rangers)

Withers' Company, Reserve Corps

State Troops

Blythe's Battalion (State Troops)

Gillenland's Battalion (State Troops)

Grace's Company (State Troops)

Maxwell's Company (State Troops) (Peach Creek Rangers)

Patton's Company (State Troops)

Perrin's Battalion, State Cavalry[6]

Red's Company (State Troops)

Stricklin's Company (State Troops)

Yerger's Company (State Troops)

See also

Lists of American Civil War Regiments by State





Causeyville, Mississippi (also known as Increase) is a small community in southeastern Lauderdale County, Mississippi, about twelve miles southeast of the city of Meridian. The Causeyville Historic District consists of four buildings at the center of the community–two general stores and two residences–that exemplify the pivotal contribution that small communities like Causeyville made to the development of Lauderdale County. The district was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1986.



History

See also: Lauderdale County, Mississippi

Established in 1833, Lauderdale County has always been one of the most prosperous counties in Mississippi. Meridian, the county seat, is located at the intersection of several major railroads and thus served as a transportation hub for early Lauderdale County. Locals in the farming and timber industries sent their products to Meridian to be loaded onto the trains and shipped to other cities.[2]


With the exception of Meridian, Lauderdale County is mostly rural, remaining largely as it was at the turn of the 20th century and even earlier. Before automobiles and personal transportation became widespread, many of the early settlers of Lauderdale County grouped into small population clusters that relied nearly entirely on local resources, each community isolated from the others. Some communities like Causeyville had a store, and some had post offices and other infrastructural institutions, but many did not have any of these buildings.[2]


Causeyville, named after a local family that settled the area in the 1820s, thrived in the pre-Civil War era. The community was a commercial center in southeastern Lauderdale County, and its inhabitants also produced lumber and agricultural products. Though most of the buildings that fed the local economy have long been demolished, there are pictures of an antebellum store, a cotton gin, and a sawmill used for a local logging company. The four buildings in the Causeyville Historic District were built between 1860 and 1930 and demonstrate the community's growth during that period. All four buildings are located along Causeyville Road; the two general stores are on the northern side of the road, and the two residences face the stores on the southern side. The four buildings in the district are all that remain of this economy.[3]



Lauderdale County is a county located on the eastern border of the U.S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 80,261.[1] The county seat is Meridian.[2] The county is named for Colonel James Lauderdale, who was killed at the Battle of New Orleans in the War of 1812.[3]


Lauderdale County is included in the Meridian, MS Micropolitan Statistical Area.



History

Andrew Jackson traveled through the county on his way to New Orleans and a town was named Hickory after his nickname "Old Hickory". An early explorer Sam Dale died in the county and is buried in Daleville, and a large monument is placed at his burial site. The largest city in the county is Meridian, which was in important railway intersection during the early 20th century. It was also home to the Soule Steam Feed Works which manufactured steam engines. Logging and rail transport were important early industries in the county. One of the largest waterfalls in Mississippi, Dunns Falls, is located in the county and a water driven mill still exists on the site. Lauderdale county is also home to the headquarters of Peavey Electronics which has manufactured audio and music equipment for half a century.


Like much of the post-Reconstruction South the county has a checkered racial history with 16 documented lynchings in the period from 1877 to 1950; most occurred around the turn of the 20th century.[4]


Nearby :



Cities

Meridian (county seat and largest municipality)

Towns

Marion

Census-designated places

Collinsville

Lauderdale

Meridian Station

Nellieburg

Toomsuba

Unincorporated communities

Alamucha

Bailey

Daleville

Kewanee

Russell

Topton

Whynot

Zero


Folk art covers all forms of visual art made in the context of folk culture. Definitions vary, but generally the objects have practical utility of some kind, rather than being exclusively decorative. The makers of folk art are normally trained within a popular tradition, rather than in the fine art tradition of the culture. There is often overlap, or contested ground,[1] with naive art, but in traditional societies where ethnographic art is still made, that term is normally used instead of "folk art".


The types of object covered by the term varies considerably and in particular "divergent categories of cultural production are comprehended by its usage in Europe, where the term originated, and in the United States, where it developed for the most part along very different lines."[2]



American sampler, 1831

Folk arts are rooted in and reflective of the cultural life of a community. They encompass the body of expressive culture associated with the fields of folklore and cultural heritage. Tangible folk art includes objects which historically are crafted and used within a traditional community. Intangible folk arts include such forms as music, dance and narrative structures. Each of these arts, both tangible and intangible, was originally developed to address a real secret. Once this practical purpose has been lost or forgotten, there is no reason for further transmission unless the object or action has been imbued with meaning beyond its initial practicality. These vital and constantly reinvigorated artistic traditions are shaped by values and standards of excellence that are passed from generation to generation, most often within family and community, through demonstration, conversation, and practice.


Characteristics of folk art objects


Detail of 17th century calendar stick carved with national coat of arms, a common motif in Norwegian folk art.

Main article: Concepts in folk art

Objects of folk art are a subset of material culture and include objects which are experienced through the senses, by seeing and touching. As with all material culture, these tangible objects can be handled, repeatedly re-experienced, and sometimes broken. They are considered works of art because of the skillful technical execution of an existing form and design; the skill might be seen in the precision of the form, the surface decoration or in the beauty of the finished product.[3] As a folk art, these objects share several characteristics that distinguish them from other artifacts of material culture.


Folk artists

The object is created by a single artisan or team of artisans. The craftsmen and women work within an established cultural framework. They frequently have a recognizable style and method in crafting their pieces, allowing their products to be recognized and attributed to a single individual or workshop. This was originally articulated by Alois Riegl in his study of Volkskunst, Hausfleiss, und Hausindustrie, published in 1894. "Riegl ... stressed that the individual hand and intentions of the artist were significant, even in folk creativity. To be sure, the artist may have been obliged by group expectations to work within the norms of transmitted forms and conventions, but individual creativity – which implied personal aesthetic choices and technical virtuosity – saved received or inherited traditions from stagnating and permitted them to be renewed in each generation."[4] Individual innovation in the production process plays an important role in the continuance of these traditional forms. Many folk art traditions like quilting, ornamental picture framing, and decoy carving continue to thrive, while new forms constantly emerge.


Contemporary outsider artists are frequently self-taught as their work is often developed in isolation or in small communities across the country. The Smithsonian American Art Museum houses over 70 such folk and self-taught artists; for example, Elito Circa, a famous and internationally recognized artist of Indigenouism, developed his own styles without professional training or guidance.[5]


Hand crafted


The taka is a type of paper mache art native to Paete in the Philippines.

All folk art objects are produced in a one-off production process. Only one object is made at a time, either by hand or in a combination of hand and machine methods; they are not mass-produced. As a result of this manual production, each individual piece is unique and can be differentiated from other objects of the same type. In his essay on "Folk Objects", folklorist Simon Bronner references preindustrial modes of production, but folk art objects continue to be made as unique crafted pieces by skilled artisans. "The notion of folk objects tends to emphasize the handmade over machine manufactured. Folk objects imply a mode of production common to preindustrial communal society where knowledge and skills were personal and traditional."[6] This does not mean that all folk art is old, it continues to be hand-crafted today in many regions around the world.


Workshops and apprentices

The design and production of folk art is learned and taught informally or formally; folk artists are not self-taught.[citation needed] Folk art does not strive for individual expression. Instead, "the concept of group art implies, indeed requires, that artists acquire their abilities, both manual and intellectual, at least in part from communication with others. The community has something, usually a great deal, to say about what passes for acceptable folk art."[7] Historically the training in a handicraft was done as apprenticeships with local craftsmen, such as the blacksmith or the stonemason. As the equipment and tools needed were no longer readily available in the community, these traditional crafts moved into technical schools or applied arts schools.


Owned by the community

The object is recognizable within its cultural framework as being of a known type. Similar objects can be found in the environment made by other individuals which resemble this object. Without exception, individual pieces of folk art will reference other works in the culture, even as they show exceptional individual execution in form or design. If antecedents cannot be found for this object, it might still be a piece of art but it is not folk art. "While traditional society does not erase ego, it does focus and direct the choices that an individual can acceptably make… the well-socialized person will find the limits are not inhibiting but helpful… Where traditions are healthy the works of different artists are more similar than they are different; they are more uniform than personal."[8]


Utility of the object

The known type of the object must be, or have originally been, utilitarian; it was created to serve some function in the daily life of the household or the community. This is the reason the design continues to be made. Since the form itself had function and purpose, it was duplicated over time in various locations by different individuals. A ground-breaking book on the history of art states that "every man-made thing arises from a problem as a purposeful solution."[9] Written by George Kubler and published in 1962, "The Shape of Time: Remarks on the History of Things" goes on to describe an approach to historical change which places the history of objects and images in a larger continuum of time. It maintains that if the purpose of the form were purely decorative, then it would not be duplicated; instead the creator would have designed something new. However since the form itself was a known type with function and purpose, it continued to be copied over time by different individuals.


Aesthetics of the genre


1978 First Indigenous Painting, mixed media with soy sauce, water and Tinting Color and enamel paint on plywood created by Elito "Amangpintor" Circa, Philippines, 1978

The object is recognized as being exceptional in the form and decorative motifs. Being part of the community, the craftsman is well aware of the community aesthetics, and how members of the local culture will respond to his work. He strives to create an object which matches their expectations, working within (mostly) unspoken cultural biases to confirm and strengthen them.[10] While the shared form indicates a shared culture, innovation allows the individual artisan to embody his own vision; it is a measure of how well he has been able to tease out the individual elements and manipulate them to form a new permutation within the tradition. "For art to progress, its unity must be dismantled so that certain of its aspects can be freed for exploration, while others shrink from attention."[11] The creative tension between the traditional object and the craftsman becomes visible in these exceptional objects. This in turn allows us to ask new questions about creativity, innovation, and aesthetics.[12]


Materials, forms, and crafts

Folk art comes in many different shapes and sizes. It uses the materials which are at hand in the locality and reproduces familiar shapes and forms. In order to gain an overview of the multitude of different folk art objects, the Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage has compiled a page of storied objects that have been part of one of their annual folklife festivals. The list below includes a sampling of different materials, forms, and artisans involved in the production of everyday and folk art objects.[13]


Alebrije

Armourer

Basketry

Bellmaker

Blacksmith

Boat building

Brickmaker

Broommaker

Cabinetry

Carpentry

Ceramics

Chillum

Clockmaker

Cooper

Coppersmith

Cutler

Decoy carving

Drystone Mason

Ex-voto

Farrier

Foodways

Fraktur

Furniture

Gunsmith

Harness maker

Ironwork

Jewelry

Kuthiyottam

Latin American Retablos

Leather crafting

Lei (garland)

Ljuskrona

Locksmith

Lubok

Madhubani painting

Masonry

Metalworking

Millwright

Miniatures or Models

Nakshi Kantha

Needlework

Painting

Pewterer

Phad painting

Quilting

Recycled materials

Ropemaker

Saddler

Sawsmith

Sculpture

Shoemaker

Spooner

Stonemason

Tanner

Textiles

Thatcher

Tile maker

Tinker

Tinsmith

Truck art in South Asia

Tools

Toys

Treenwaren

Turning

Vernacular architecture

Wainwright

Weaver

Wheelwright

Whirligig

Wood carving

Related terminology

Listed below are a wide-ranging assortment of labels for an eclectic group of art works. All of these genres are created outside of the institutional structures of the art world, they are not considered "fine art". There is undoubtedly overlap between these labeled collections, such that an object might be listed under two or more labels.[14] Many of these groupings and individual objects might also resemble "folk art" in one aspect or another, without however meeting the defining characteristics listed above. As our understanding of art expands beyond the confines of the "fine arts", each of these types needs to be included in the discussion.


Americana

Art brut

Folk Environments

Indigenous art

Genre paintings

Naïve art

Outlier art[15]

Outsider art

Primitive art

Tramp art

Trench art

Tribal art

Vanguard art[15]

Vernacular art

Visionary art


a folk art wall in Lincoln Park, Chicago

Influence on mainstream art

Folk artworks, styles and motifs have inspired various artists. For example, Pablo Picasso was inspired by African tribal sculptures and masks, while Natalia Goncharova and others were inspired by traditional Russian popular prints called luboks.[16]


In 1951, the artist, writer and curator Barbara Jones organised the exhibition Black Eyes and Lemonade at the Whitechapel Gallery in London as part of the Festival of Britain. This exhibition, along with her publication The Unsophisticated Arts, exhibited folk and mass-produced consumer objects alongside contemporary art in an early instance of the popularisation of pop art in Britain.[17]


Supporting organizations

The United Nations recognizes and supports cultural heritage around the world,[18] in particular UNESCO in partnership with the International Organization of Folk Art (IOV). Their declared mission is to “further folk art, customs and culture around the world through the organization of festivals and other cultural events, … with emphasis on dancing, folk music, folk songs and folk art.”[19] By supporting international exchanges of folk art groups as well as the organization of festivals and other cultural events, their goal is promote international understanding and world peace.


In the United States, the National Endowment for the Arts works to promote greater understanding and sustainability of cultural heritage across the United States and around the world through research, education, and community engagement. As part of this, they identify and support NEA folk art fellows in quilting, ironwork, woodcarving, pottery, embroidery, basketry, weaving, along with other related traditional arts. The NEA guidelines define as criteria for this award a display of “authenticity, excellence, and significance within a particular tradition” for the artists selected. (NEA guidelines) .” In 1966, the NEA’s first year of funding, support for national and regional folk festivals was identified as a priority with the first grant made in 1967 to the National Folk Festival Association. Folklife festivals are now celebrated around the world to encourage and support the education and community engagement of diverse ethnic communities.


Regional folk arts

African folk art

Chinese folk art

Mingei (Japanese folk art movement)

Minhwa (Korean folk art)

Mak Yong (Northern Malay Peninsular folk art dance)

Mexican handcrafts and folk art

Joget (Wider Malay folk art dance)

North Malabar

Theyyam

Tribal art

Warli painting (India)

Folk arts of Karnataka (India)

Folk Art and Ethnological Museum of Macedonia and Thrace

Folk Art Museum of Patras, Greece

Native American Art

Associations

Folk Art Society of America

IOV International Organization of Folk Art, in partnership with UNESCO

National Endowment for the Arts

CIOFF: International Council of Organizations of Folklore Festivals and Folk Arts

Pennsylvania Folklore: Woven Together TV Program on textile arts

National Folk Organization

Museum Collections

American Folk Art Museum

Smithsonian American Art Museum

Folk Art Center and Guild, Asheville NC

Museum of International Folk Art

American Folk Art Museum

Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Museum

Shelburne Museum






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