Honorary title established 16 April 1934 with the Gold Star medal instituted 1 August 1939, by Decree of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet. Awarded to both military and civilian personnel for personal or collective deeds of heroism rendered to the USSR or socialist society. Recipients of this award simultaneously receive the Order of Lenin, and a Diploma of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet. May be awarded more than once to an individual, in which case the recipient would receive a second awarding of the Gold Star medal, but would not receive a second Order of Lenin. In place of this second awarding of the Order of Lenin, the recipient would have a sculptural bust built in the town of their birth. Approximately 12,600 people were awarded more than once. The awarding of this medal more than once was abolished by the USSR Supreme Soviet in 1988. The medal is made of Gold, the other parts are silver, covered in Gold. Special privileges were also granted to holders of this title. These included a pension with survivor benefits in case of Hero's death, first priority on the housing list, 50 per cent rent reduction, reduced taxation rates (in 1985 this was changed to tax exempt status), up to an additional 15 square meters in living space, free yearly round-trip first class ticket, free personal bus transportation, free yearly visit to sanitarium or rest home, as well as entertainment and medical benefits.